Skip to main content


Published onMay 04, 2021


“18F Accessibility Guide.”

1940 US Census Community Project. “We Did It! The 1940 US Census Community Project,” 2012.

By the People. “About By the People.”

herbaria@home - Recording historical biodiversity. “About Herbaria@home.”

Abraham, Rebekkah. “Reflections on Putting Art on the Map.” Historypin Blog (blog), April 20, 2014.

“Accessibility - W3C.”

Alam, Sultana, and John Campbell. “Crowdsourcing Motivations in a Not-for-Profit GLAM Context: The Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program.” In ACIS 2012: Location, Location, Location: Proceedings of the 23rd Australasian Conference on Information Systems 2012, 1–11, 2012.

Alam, Sultana Lubna, and John Campbell. “Temporal Motivations of Volunteers to Participate in Cultural Crowdsourcing Work.” Information Systems Research, July 3, 2017.

Alam, Sultana Lubna, Ruonan Sun, and John Campbell. “Helping Yourself or Others? Motivation Dynamics for High-Performing Volunteers in GLAM Crowdsourcing.” Australasian Journal of Information Systems 24 (May 18, 2020).

Allen, Nick. “Tips For Hosting Your First Virtual Transcribathon,” February 22, 2021.

“Amazon Mechanical Turk.”

American Library Association. “Privacy and Confidentiality: Library Core Values.” American Library Association, April 25, 2014.

“Arabic Scientific Manuscripts of the British Library.”

Arts Council England. “Equality, Diversity and the Creative Case: A Data Report, 2018–2019,” 2020.

———. “Generic Learning Outcomes.”

Australia, National Archives of. “ArcHIVE.”

Bauer, Shane. “Did an Inmate Digitize Your Genealogical Records?” Mother Jones (blog).

Benkler, Yochai. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven London: Yale University Press, 2006.

Berglund-Prytz, Ylva. “Lockdown 2020 – One Year on | RunCoCo,” 2020.

Bernstein, Shelley. “Crowdsourcing in Brooklyn.” In Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage, edited by Mia Ridge. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2014.

Berry, Dorothy. “Digitizing and Enhancing Description Across Collections to Make African American Materials More Discoverable on Umbra Search African American History.” The Design for Diversity Learning Toolkit.

WeDigFLPlants. “BIOSPEX.”

Blickhan, Sam. “The Zooniverse: A Quick Starter Guide for Research Teams.” Zooniverse (blog), June 24, 2020.

Blickhan, Samantha, Coleman Krawczyk, Daniel Hanson, Amy Boyer, Andrea Simenstad, and Victoria Van Hyning. “Individual vs. Collaborative Methods of Crowdsourced Transcription.” Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities Special Issue on Collecting, Preserving, and Disseminating Endangered Cultural Heritage for New Understandings through Multilingual Approaches (December 2019).

Brabham, Daren C. Crowdsourcing. The MIT Press Essential Knowledge Series. The MIT Press, 2013.

British Library, and Adi Keinan-Schoonbaert. “Ground Truth Transcriptions for Training OCR of Historical Arabic Handwritten Texts.” British Library Research Repository, 2019.

BrodeFrank, Jessica, Samantha Blickhan, Becky Rother, and L. Clifton Johnson. “Crowdsourcing Knowledge for Representation: Interactive Learning and Engagement with Collections Using Zooniverse’s Mapping Historic Skies.” Theory and Practice: The Emerging Museum Professionals Journal 3 (2020).

Brumfield, Ben. “Challenges to Toolmakers,” 2019.

Brumfield, Sara. “OCR Correction vs Transcription,” February 4, 2019.

———. “Project Profile: Jawi Transcription Project,” December 13, 2017.

———. “Project Profile: Papers of Julian Bond & Bond Transcribathon,” September 25, 2019.

Brumfield, Sara Carlstead. “FromThePage Activity January 2020-April 2020.” Tableau Software, 2020.

Budiu, Raluca. “Login Walls Stop Users in Their Tracks.” Nielsen Norman Group, March 2, 2014.

“Building Inspector - Kill Time. Make History.”

Cardamone, Carolin, Kevin Schawinski, Marc Sarzi, Steven P Bamford, Nicola Bennert, C M Urry, Chris Lintott, et al. “Galaxy Zoo Green Peas: Discovery of a Class of Compact Extremely Star-Forming Galaxies.” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 399, no. 3 (November 1, 2009): 1191–1205.

Global Indigenous Data Alliance. “CARE Principles of Indigenous Data Governance.”

“Category:User Warning Templates - Wikipedia.”

Causer, Tim, Kris Grint, Anna-Maria Sichani, and Melissa Terras. “‘Making Such Bargain’: Transcribe Bentham and the Quality and Cost-Effectiveness of Crowdsourced Transcription1.” Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 33, no. 3 (September 1, 2018): 467–87.

“CB06_0154 (Mount Auburn Cemetery, 000_1879-01 Copying Book: Superintendent’s Letters, 2005.062.008).”

The Colored Conventions Project. “CCP Principles.”

Christen, Kim. “Indigenous Communities Are Using an Empowering Tool to Reclaim Their Histories in the Digital Space.” The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, November 16, 2020.

Chun, Susan, Rich Cherry, Doug Hiwiller, Jennifer Trant, and Bruce Wyman. “Steve.Museum: An Ongoing Experiment in Social Tagging, Folksonomy, and Museums.” edited by Jennifer Trant and David Bearman, Vol. Museums and the Web 2006: Proceedings. Toronto, Canada: Archives & Museum Informatics, 2006.

CILIP (Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals) and ARA (Archives and Records Association). “A Study of the UK Information Workforce: Mapping the Libraries, Archives, Records, Information Management and Knowledge Management and Related Professions in the UK,” 2015.

Civil War Photo Sleuth. “Civil War Photo Sleuth.”

“Collaborative Transcription Project,” February 9, 2021.

Committee on Designing Citizen Science to Support Science Learning, Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Learning Through Citizen Science: Enhancing Opportunities by Design. Edited by Rajul Pandya and Kenne Ann Dibner. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2018.

“Community Building.” In Wikipedia, January 29, 2021.

“Community Building - Wikipedia.”

GitHub. “Concordia and By the People Design Principles.”

“Configuring PYBOSSA - PYBOSSA Documentation.”

Consortium, Crowd. “Best Practices for Crowdsourcing: Collaborative Manuscript Transcription.” Crowd Consortium (blog), October 20, 2015.

“Contribute - Europeana Contribute.”

Crouser, R. Jordon, and Remco Chang. “An Affordance-Based Framework for Human Computation and Human-Computer Collaboration.” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 18, no. 12 (December 2012): 2859–68.

Crowley, E. J., and A. Zisserman. “The Art of Detection,” 2016.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1990.

Cybulska, Daria. “Wikimedia UK: Partners in Open Knowledge Understanding the Impact of Our Wikimedians in Residence (2012–2017).” WIkimedia UK, 2018.

DataONE. “Data Life Cycle.” DataONE.

De La Torre, Natalie Ann. “Gaining Insight: Indigenous Positions towards Digitisation and Open Access.” SD Celar (blog), November 5, 2020.

Deines, Nathaniel, Melissa Gill, Matthew Lincoln, and Marissa Clifford. “Six Lessons Learned from Our First Crowdsourcing Project in the Digital Humanities.” Getty Iris (blog), February 7, 2018.

“Digirati: Machine Enrichment of Content.”

“DigVentures - Archaeology in Your Hands.”

Dombrowski, Quinn. “‘It Doesn’t Work:’ Failure and DH Tools,” July 21, 2020.

———. “Towards a Taxonomy of Failure,” January 30, 2019.

“Douglass Day.”

Drew, John. “About Us.” Dickens Journals Online.

Ducheneaut, Nicolas, Nicholas Yee, Eric Nickell, and Robert J. Moore. “‘Alone Together?’: Exploring the Social Dynamics of Massively Multiplayer Online Games.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 407–16. Montréal, Québec, Canada: ACM, 2006.

Durkin, Philip. “Shakespeare’s World and Updating the OED: A Splendid Antedating of ‘White Lie.’” Shakespeare’s World (blog), April 5, 2017.

Eccles, Kathryn, and Andrew Greg. “Your Paintings Tagger: Crowdsourcing Descriptive Metadata for a National Virtual Collection.” In Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage, edited by Mia Ridge. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2014.

Eitzel, M. V., Jessica L. Cappadonna, Chris Santos-Lang, Ruth Ellen Duerr, Arika Virapongse, Sarah Elizabeth West, Christopher Conrad Maximillian Kyba, et al. “Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms.” Citizen Science: Theory and Practice 2, no. 1 (June 5, 2017): 1.

“EMammal | See Wildlife. Do Science.”

Esten, Emily. “Princeton Geniza Lab Hosts Scribes of the Cairo Geniza Transcribe-a-Thon.” Judaica DH at the Penn Libraries, November 13, 2019.

Esten, Emily, and Samantha Blickhan. “Scribes of the Cairo Geniza.” Visualizing Objects, Places, and Spaces: A Digital Project Handbook, February 6, 2021.

Europeana. “Hack4Europe! - Europeana Hackathon Roadshow.” Text. Shaping Europe’s digital future - European Commission, May 7, 2011.

Europeana 1914-1918. “Europeana 1914-1918 – Untold Stories & Official Histories of WW1.”

“Europeana Transcribe – Europeana Foundation.”

Eveleigh, Alexandra, Charlene Jennett, Ann Blandford, Philip Brohan, and Anna L. Cox. “Designing for Dabblers and Deterring Drop-Outs in Citizen Science,” 2985–94. ACM Press, 2014.

Eveleigh, Alexandra, Charlene Jennett, Stuart Lynn, and Anna L. Cox. “‘I Want to Be a Captain! I Want to Be a Captain!’: Gamification in the Old Weather Citizen Science Project.” In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Gameful Design, Research, and Applications, 79–82. Toronto Ontario Canada: ACM, 2013.

Fauconnier, Sandra. “Data Roundtripping: A New Frontier for GLAM-Wiki Collaborations.” Diff (blog), December 13, 2019.

Ferriter, Meghan. “Inviting Engagement, Supporting Success: How to Manage a Transcription Center.” Collections: A Journal for Museum and Archives Professionals 12, no. 2 (2016): 97–116.

Ferriter, Meghan, Christine Rosenfeld, Dana Boomer, Carla Burgess, Siobhan Leachman, Victoria Leachman, Heidi Moses, Felicia Pickering, and Megan E. Shuler. “Crowdsourcing as Practice and Method in the Smithsonian Transcription Center.” Collections 12, no. 2 (June 1, 2016): 207–25.

———. “We Learn Together: Crowdsourcing as Practice and Method in the Smithsonian Transcription Center.” Collections: A Journal for Museum and Archives Professionals 12, no. 2 (March 22, 2016): 207–26.

Ferriter, Meghan, and Kate Zwaard. “National Digital Initiatives, LC Labs, and Crowdsourcing at LC.” Presented at the LC’s Digital Future and You!, Library of Congress, May 12, 2017.

Ferriter, Meghan, Kate Zwaard, Elaine Kamlley, Rosie Storey, Chris Adams, Lauren Algee, Victoria Van Hyning, et al. “‘With One Heart’: Agile Approaches for Developing Concordia and Crowdsourcing at the Library of Congress.” The Code4Lib Journal, no. 46 (November 5, 2019).

“File:Example WiR Agreement.Pdf - Wikimedia UK.”

Finzen, Dieter. “The War Diaries of Dieter Finzen in Both World Wars,” November 23, 2014.

“Flesch–Kincaid Readability Tests.” In Wikipedia, March 13, 2021.

Fussell, Sidney. “The Schism at the Heart of the Open-Source Movement.” The Atlantic, January 3, 2020.

“Gantt Chart.” In Wikipedia, March 25, 2021.

Gilliver, Peter. “‘Your Dictionary Needs You’: a Brief History of the OED’s Appeals to the Public.” Oxford English Dictionary.

Glaser, April. “When the Internet Lets Us Love Nature a Little Too Much.” Slate Magazine, April 4, 2019.

Gonzales, Joseph A., Casey Fiesler, and Amy Bruckman. “Towards an Appropriable CSCW Tool Ecology: Lessons from the Greatest International Scavenger Hunt the World Has Ever Seen.” In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, 946–57. CSCW ’15. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2015.

Government Digital Service. “Understanding Accessibility Requirements for Public Sector Bodies.” GOV.UK, February 2021.

Graham, Mark, Bernie Hogan, Ralph Straumann, and Ahmed Medhat. “Uneven Geographies of User-Generated Information: Patterns of Increasing Informational Poverty.” SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, January 21, 2014.

“Grants:APG/Proposals/2019-2020 Round 1/Wikimedia UK/Impact Report Form - Meta.”

Grayson, Richard. “A Life in the Trenches? The Use of Operation War Diary and Crowdsourcing Methods to Provide an Understanding of the British Army’s Day-to-Day Life on the Western Front.” British Journal for Military History 2, no. 2 (2016).

Grevet, Catherine, and Eric Gilbert. “Piggyback Prototyping: Using Existing, Large-Scale Social Computing Systems to Prototype New Ones.” In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 4047–56. CHI ’15. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2015.

Guralnick, Rob. “Making Progress Clear on Notes from Nature.” Notes from Nature (blog), February 24, 2014.

Haley Goldman, Kate. “Evaluation Guide for Public Libraries.” Urban Libraries Council, 2021.

Haynes, Caitlin. “Review: Scribes of the Cairo Geniza.” Reviews in Digital Humanities II, no. 1 (January 4, 2021).

Hedges, Mark, and Stuart Dunn. Academic Crowdsourcing in the Humanities - 1st Edition. Chandos, 2017.

“Help - S Names (Wisconsin, Dane County Naturalization Index).”

Hill, Benjamin Mako, and Aaron Shaw. “The Wikipedia Gender Gap Revisited: Characterizing Survey Response Bias with Propensity Score Estimation.” PLOS ONE 8, no. 6 (June 26, 2013): e65782.

Historypin. “About the Year of the Bay Project.” Historypin About, October 15, 2012.

Holley, Rose. “Crowdsourcing: How and Why Should Libraries Do It?” D-Lib Magazine 16, no. 3/4 (March 2010).

———. “Many Hands Make Light Work: Public Collaborative OCR Text Correction in Australian Historic Newspapers.” Canberra: National Library of Australia, 2009.

Howe, Jeff. “The Rise of Crowdsourcing.” Wired, June 1, 2006.

“Howitt and Fison Papers.”

iNaturalist. “INaturalist.”

The Colored Conventions Project. “Introduction to CCP Corpus.”

Jackson, C. B., C. Østerlund, G. Mugar, K. D. Hassman, and K. Crowston. “Motivations for Sustained Participation in Crowdsourcing: Case Studies of Citizen Science on the Role of Talk.” In 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1624–34, 2015.

Jemielniak, Dariusz. “Naturally Emerging Regulation and the Danger of Delegitimizing Conventional Leadership: Drawing on the Example of Wikipedia.” In The SAGE Handbook of Action Research, by Hilary Bradbury, 522–28. 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2015.

Johnson, Cliff, Laura Trouille, Lucy Fortson, and Chris Lintott. “AAS - IPosterSessions.Com.” Virtual, 2021.

Jordan Raddick, M., Georgia Bracey, Pamela L. Gay, Chris J. Lintott, Carie Cardamone, Phil Murray, Kevin Schawinski, Alexander S. Szalay, and Jan Vandenberg. “Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists.” Astronomy Education Review 12, no. 1 (December 2013).

“Journal of Open Humanities Data.”

Jules, Bergis. “Archiving Protests, Protecting Activists,” June 17, 2020.

Kapsalis, Effie. “Wikidata: Recruiting the Crowd to Power Access to Digital Archives.” Journal of Radio & Audio Media 26, no. 1 (January 2, 2019): 134–42.

Karadkar, Unmil, and King Davis. “Digital Scholarship and Privacy-Sensitive Collections,” 2017.

Kassim, Sumaya. “The Museum Will Not Be Decolonised.” Media Diversified (blog), November 15, 2017.

Koonce, Taneya. “Volunteer Indexing Project of TN Convict Leasing Records.” Afro-American Genealogy & History in Nashville, Tennessee (blog), February 14, 2021.

Krug, Steve. Don’t Make Me Think!: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability. 2nd ed. Berkeley, California: New Riders, 2006.

Kukarni, Chinmay, and Mary Beth Keryy. “Week 3 Lesson #5 - Matchmaking Needs and Risks for Adding AI/ML.” Presented at the Fall 2019 Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2019.

Kulkarni, Chinmay, and Mary Beth Kerry. “Human-AI Interaction - Matchmaking Needs and Risks for Adding AI/ML.” 2019.

“Lab Policies - Zooniverse Help.”

Laura Trouille. Brief Zooniverse Project Builder Tutorial, 2018.

Lee, Benjamin Charles Germain, Jaime Mears, Eileen Jakeway, Meghan Ferriter, Chris Adams, Nathan Yarasavage, Deborah Thomas, Kate Zwaard, and Daniel S. Weld. “The Newspaper Navigator Dataset: Extracting And Analyzing Visual Content from 16 Million Historic Newspaper Pages in Chronicling America.” ArXiv:2005.01583 [Cs], May 4, 2020.

“Letters of 1916 | Maynooth University.”

Liam Sweeney, and Roger Schonfeld. “Inclusion, Diversity, and Equity: Members of the Association of Research Libraries.” Ithaka S+R, August 30, 2017.

LibCrowds. “LibCrowds Terms for Use.”

Librarians, Jean Blackwell Hutson Research Division Reference. “Green Book Research Guide.”

Libraries, Judaica DH at the Penn. “Who Are the #GenizaScribes?” Medium, February 5, 2020.

“Libraries Receive NEH Grant to Help Develop Multilingual Transcription | University of Texas Libraries | The University of Texas at Austin,” February 5, 2020.

GitHub. “LibraryOfCongress/Concordia.”

Lifshitz-Assaf, Hila. “Dismantling Knowledge Boundaries at NASA: The Critical Role of Professional Identity in Open Innovation.” Administrative Science Quarterly 63, no. 4 (December 1, 2018): 746–82.

Lintott, Chris J., Kevin Schawinski, Anze Slosar, Kate Land, Steven Bamford, Daniel Thomas, M. Jordan Raddick, et al. “Galaxy Zoo : Morphologies Derived from Visual Inspection of Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 389, no. 3 (September 21, 2008): 1179–89.

“Lone Rock Convict Stockade Project.”

Looseley, Rhiannon, and Frankie Roberto. “Museums & Wikis: Two Case Studies.” In Museums and the Web 2009. Indianapolis, IN: Archives & Museum Informatics, 2009.

Mackenzie, Alec. “Double Vision: Image Recognition Meets Art UK.” Art UK (blog), January 31, 2019.

Mahoney, Anne. “Tachypaedia Byzantina: The Suda On Line as Collaborative Encyclopedia.” Changing the Center of Gravity: Transforming Classical Studies Through Cyberinfrastructure, DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly, 3, no. 1 (2009).

Mastronardi, David. “Friend or Foe? - Gamestorming,” June 8, 2018.

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming the Future of Museums.” 2008.


Michener, William K. “Ten Simple Rules for Creating a Good Data Management Plan.” Edited by Philip E. Bourne. PLOS Computational Biology 11, no. 10 (October 22, 2015): e1004525.

Mills, Edward. “The Flitch of Bacon: An Unexpected Journey Through the Collections of the British Library,” December 12, 2017.


Mohanty, Vikram, Kareem Abdol-Hamid, Courtney Ebersohl, and Kurt Luther. “Second Opinion: Supporting Last-Mile Person Identification with Crowdsourcing and Face Recognition.” In Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Human Computation and Crowdsourcing, 86–96, 2019.

Mohanty, Vikram, David Thames, Sneha Mehta, and Kurt Luther. “Photo Sleuth: Identifying Historical Portraits with Face Recognition and Crowdsourced Human Expertise.” ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems 10, no. 4 (October 16, 2020): 33:1-33:36.

Morley, James. “Tweet: This Is What Google Vision API ‘Sees’, Suggesting Their Dataset Is a Bit Lacking in Early 20th Century Wedding Dresses!” Tweet. @jamesinealing (blog), February 11, 2019.

Morreale, Laura. “Distant Gatherings: A Text-Case for Digital Manuscript Collaborations.” November 19, 2020.

Murphy, Oonagh, and Elena Villaespesa. “AI: A Museum Planning Toolkit.” London: The Museums + AI Network, January 2020.

“New York Times Labs: Madison.”

“Newberry Transcribe.”

Nielsen, Jakob. “10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design.” Nielsen Norman Group, 1995.

Norman, Donald A. “Affordance, Conventions, and Design.” Interactions 6, no. 3 (May 1999): 38–43.

Scientific American. “Old Weather.”


Oomen, Johan, and Lora Aroyo. “Crowdsourcing in the Cultural Heritage Domain: Opportunities and Challenges.” In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Communities and Technologies, 138–49, 2011.


O’sullivan, Liz, and John Dickerson. “Here Are a Few Ways GPT-3 Can Go Wrong.” Blog. TechCrunch (blog), August 7, 2020.

“Outreach Guide – Douglass Day.”

Owens, Trevor. “Digital Strategy Catches up With the Present: An Interview with Smithsonian’s Michael Edson | The Signal.” Webpage, August 9, 2012.//

———. “Digital Strategy Catches up With the Present: An Interview with Smithsonian’s Michael Edson | The Signal.” Webpage, August 9, 2012.//

Padilla, Thomas. “Getting Started with OpenRefine.” Personal website. Thomas Padilla.

Panciera, Katherine, Aaron Halfaker, and Loren Terveen. “Wikipedians Are Born, Not Made: A Study of Power Editors on Wikipedia.” In Proceedings of the ACM 2009 International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 51–60. GROUP ’09. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2009.

Parilla, Lesley, and Meghan Ferriter. “Social Media and Crowdsourced Transcription of Historical Materials at the Smithsonian Institution: Methods for Strengthening Community Engagement and Its Tie to Transcription Output.” The American Archivist 79, no. 2 (September 1, 2016): 438–60.

Phillips, Tina, Marion Ferguson, Matthew Minarchek, Norman Porticella, and Rick Bonney. “User’s Guide for Evaluating Learning Outcomes in Citizen Science.” Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 2014.

Pictura. “VeleHanden.” VeleHanden.

Posner, Miriam. “Getting Started with OpenRefine – Digital Humanities 201.” Personal website. Miriam Posner, 2019.

Ptolemy, Jayne. “Clements Library Staff Adapts to the Remote Workplace.” UM Clements Library (blog), August 19, 2020.

“Publications | Zooniverse - People-Powered Research.”

Raimond, Yves. “The World Service Archive Prototype - BBC R&D,” November 29, 2021.

Raimond, Yves, Michael Smethurst, and Tristan Ferne. “What We Learnt by Crowdsourcing the World Service Archive.” BBC R&D (blog), September 15, 2014.

“Readable | Free Readability Test Tool.”

Reed, Caroline. “Is Revisiting Collections Working?” Paul Hamlyn Foundation, 2013.

Ridge, Mia. “Citizen History and Its Discontents.” Institute for Historical Research, 2014.

———. “Crowdsourcing in Cultural Heritage: a Practical Guide to Designing and Running Successful Projects.” In Routledge International Handbook of Research Methods in Digital Humanities, edited by Kristen Schuster and Stuart Dunn. Routledge, 2021.

———, ed. Crowdsourcing Our Cultural Heritage. Routledge, 2017.

———. “From Tagging to Theorizing: Deepening Engagement with Cultural Heritage through Crowdsourcing.” Curator: The Museum Journal 56, no. 4 (October 7, 2013): 435–50.

———. “Making Digital History: The Impact of Digitality on Public Participation and Scholarly Practices in Historical Research.” Ph.D., Open University, 2015.

———. “Playing with Difficult Objects – Game Designs to Improve Museum Collections.” In Museums and the Web 2011: Proceedings, edited by Jennifer Trant and David Bearman. Toronto, Canada: Archives & Museum Informatics, 2011.

———. “Sharing Authorship and Authority: User Generated Content and the Cultural Heritage Sector.” In Mia Ridge. University of Leicester, 2007.

———. “Thanks for Your Feedback! Here Are Some Changes We’ve Made.” Living with Machines Talk, December 8, 2020.

———. “The Contributions of Family and Local Historians to British History Online.” In Participatory Heritage, edited by Henriette Roued-Cunliffe and Andrea Copeland. London: Facet Publishing, 2017.

———. “Where next for Open Cultural Data in Museums?” Museum Identity, 2013.

Ridge, Mia, Christian Algar, and Susan Knight. “Summary: In The Spotlight Survey Responses.” British Library, 2018.

Ridge, Mia, Samantha Blickhan, and Meghan Ferriter. “The Volunteer Perspective on ‘What Makes a Crowdsourcing / Citizen Research / Online Volunteering Project Great?’” Collective Wisdom (blog), March 2021.

Ridge, Mia, Meghan Ferriter, and Samantha Blickhan. “The Crowdsourcing Stakeholder View on ‘What Do You Wish You’d Known at the Start?’” Collective Wisdom (blog), March 2021.

———. “We Want to Hear from You!” Collective Wisdom (blog), February 2021.

Rogers, Yvonne. “New Theoretical Approaches for Human-Computer Interaction.” Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 38, no. 1 (September 22, 2005): 87–143.

Rohden, Frauke, Christopher Kullenberg, Niclas Hagen, and Dick Kasperowski. “Tagging, Pinging and Linking – User Roles in Virtual Citizen Science Forums.” Citizen Science: Theory and Practice 4, no. 1 (June 7, 2019): 19.

Rolfe, Gary, Dawn Freshwater, and Melanie Jasper. Critical Reflection for Nursing and the Helping Professions: a User’s Guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001.

Rosenfeld, Christine. “More than Merely Transcription: An Analysis of Metatasks and Twitter Chat.” Collections: A Journal for Museum and Archives Professionals 12, no. 2 (March 22, 2016): 199–206.

Rosser, Holly, and Andrea Wiggins. “Tutorial Designs and Task Types in Zooniverse.” In Companion of the 2018 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, 177–80. CSCW ’18. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2018.

Royal Historical Society, Hannah Atkinson, Suzanne Bardgett, Adam Budd, Margot Finn, Christopher Kissane, Sadiah Qureshi, Jonathan Saha, John Siblon, and Sujit Sivasundaram. “Race, Ethnicity & Equality in UK History: A Report and Resource for Change,” 2018.

Sanderson, Ben. “Playbills Crowdsourcing Website Launch.” The British Library. The British Library, November 2017.

Schaik, Sam van. “Endangered Archives Blog: The Endangered Archives Programme in a Time of Change - Looking Back on 2020,” February 1, 2021.

Schmalz, Eric, and Michael Haley Goldman. “Citizen History – so Close or Too Far? Current Results from Citizen History and the Problems of Creating Participatory Projects – MW20 | Online.” In Museums and the Web 2020, 2020.

Schwartz, Barry. The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less, Revised Edition. Revised ed. edition. HarperCollins e-books, 2009.

“Scribes of the Cairo Geniza,” n.d.


Secord, Anne. “Corresponding Interests: Artisans and Gentlemen in Nineteenth-Century Natural History.” The British Journal for the History of Science 27, no. 4 (December 1994): 383–408.

“Section508.Gov | GSA Government-Wide IT Accessibility Program.”

Seidman, Max J., Dr Mary Flanagan, Trish Rose-Sandler, and Mike Lichtenberg. “Are Games a Viable Solution to Crowdsourcing Improvements to Faulty OCR? – The Purposeful Gaming and BHL Experience.” The Code4Lib Journal, no. 33 (July 19, 2016).

Serventi, Jennifer. “Planning 3: Managing and Sustaining the Project Assets.” The National Endowment for the Humanities, November 4, 2019.

Silvertown, Jonathan. “A New Dawn for Citizen Science.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24, no. 9 (September 2009): 467–71.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. “#FWTrueLove Transcription Challenge.” Field Book Project, February 13, 2015.

Smith-Yoshimura, Karen, Carol Jean Godby, Helice Koffler, Ken Varnum, and Elizabeth Yakel. “Social Metadata for Libraries, Archives and Museums. Part 2: Survey Analysis,” 2011.

Smith-Yoshimura, Karen, and Rose Holley. “Social Metadata for Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Part 3: Recommendations and Readings,” 2012.

Smith-Yoshimura, Karen, and Cyndi Shein. “Social Metadata for Libraries, Archives and Museums Part 1: Site Reviews,” 2011.

Soni, S., C. P. L. Berry, S. B. Coughlin, M. Harandi, C. B. Jackson, K. Crowston, C. Østerlund, et al. “Discovering Features in Gravitational-Wave Data through Detector Characterization, Citizen Science and Machine Learning.” ArXiv:2103.12104 [Astro-Ph, Physics:Gr-Qc, Physics:Physics], March 22, 2021.

Spiers, Helen. “Top Ten Tips – Writing a Great Zooniverse Tutorial.” Zooniverse (blog), June 13, 2019.

Spiers, Helen, Alexandra Swanson, Lucy Fortson, Brooke Simmons, Laura Trouille, Samantha Blickhan, and Chris Lintott. “Everyone Counts? Design Considerations in Online Citizen Science.” Journal of Science Communication 18, no. 1 (January 17, 2019): A04.

Springer, Michelle, Beth Dulabahn, Phil Michel, Barbara Natanson, David Reser, David Woodward, and Helena Zinkham. “For the Common Good: The Library of Congress Flickr Pilot Project,” October 30, 2008.

“Strategy/Wikimedia Movement/2017/Direction - Meta.”

“Strategy/Wikimedia Movement/2017/Direction/Appendix.”

“Strategy/Wikimedia Movement/2017/Sources/New Voices Synthesis Report (July 2017) - Meta.”

“Strategy/Wikimedia Movement/2018-20/Recommendations/Innovate in Free Knowledge.”

“Strategy/Wikimedia Movement/2018-20/Recommendations/Iteration 2/Resource Allocation/C - Meta.”

“Strategy/Wikimedia Movement/2018-20/Recommendations/Movement Strategy Principles.”

“Strategy/Wikimedia Movement/2018-20/Zu - Meta.”

Sutterman, Kelli. “Genealogists and Volunteers Hard at Work Indexing the 1940 Census.” The Gazette, July 16, 2012.

Swanson, Alexandra, Margaret Kosmala, Chris Lintott, Robert Simpson, Arfon Smith, and Craig Packer. “Snapshot Serengeti, High-Frequency Annotated Camera Trap Images of 40 Mammalian Species in an African Savanna.” Scientific Data 2, no. 1 (June 9, 2015): 150026.

Terras, Melissa. “Crowdsourcing in the Digital Humanities.” Humanities Commons, 2016.

The Colored Conventions Project. “The Colored Conventions Project.”

The University of the South. “The Roberson Project on Slavery, Race, and Reconciliation.”

“Theory of Change.” In Wikipedia, February 23, 2021.

Topaz, Chad M., Bernhard Klingenberg, Daniel Turek, Brianna Heggeseth, Pamela E. Harris, Julie C. Blackwood, C. Ondine Chavoya, Steven Nelson, and Kevin M. Murphy. “Diversity of Artists in Major U.S. Museums.” Edited by Christopher M. Danforth. PLOS ONE 14, no. 3 (March 20, 2019): e0212852.

“Translation Studies MSc - Wikipedia Project - Media Hopper Create.”

Citizen Science Association. “Trustworthy Data Practices - Citizen Science AssociationCitizen Science.”

“University of Edinburgh Events and Workshops: Translation Studies.” In Wikipedia, February 15, 2021.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Institutional Review Boards Frequently Asked Questions.” U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA, January 1998.

Vetter, Jeremy. “Introduction: Lay Participation in the History of Scientific Observation.” Science in Context 24, no. 2 (June 2011): 127–41.

“Virginia Memory - James I Robertson Jr Civil War Sesquicentennial Legacy Collection.”

“VT Stories | Sharing with the World What a Hokie Really Is.”


W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview.” Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI).

Wang, Nai-Ching, David Hicks, and Kurt Luther. “Exploring Trade-Offs Between Learning and Productivity in Crowdsourced History.” Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 2, no. CSCW (November 2018): 178:1-178:24.

History Hub. “Welcome.”

Westmont, Camille. “Unearthing Convict Leasing in Southern Middle Tennessee.” Tennessee Council for Professional Archaeology (blog), September 9, 2020.

Agile Alliance. “What Is a Retrospective?,” December 17, 2015.

“Who Are the #GenizaScribes?. Who Are the #GenizaScribes, The… | by Judaica DH at the Penn Libraries | Medium.”

“Wikidata:Requests for Comment/Wikidata to Use Data Schemas to Standardise Data Structure on a Subject - Wikidata.”

“Wikidata:WikiProject Schemas - Wikidata.”

Wikimedia. “Strategy/Wikimedia Movement/2018-20/Recommendations/Provide for Safety and Inclusion - Meta.”

Wikimedia Foundation. “Wikimedia Foundation Board Announces Community Culture Statement, Enacts New Standards to Address Harassment and Promote Inclusivity across Projects,” May 22, 2020.


Wikimedia Foundation. “Wikipedia Embraces First-of-Its Kind Universal Code of Conduct, Conceived For The New Internet Era,” February 2, 2021.

“Wikipedia:Administration - Wikipedia.”

“Wikipedia:Assume Good Faith.” In Wikipedia, December 6, 2020.

“Wikipedia:Civility.” In Wikipedia, March 26, 2021.

“Wikipedia:Conflict of Interest.” In Wikipedia, March 31, 2021.

“Wikipedia:Consensus.” In Wikipedia, March 30, 2021.

“Wikipedia:Dispute Resolution.” In Wikipedia, January 20, 2021.

“Wikipedia:GLAM/Protests and Suffragettes/Events/How to Add Suffragettes & Women Activists to Wikipedia: A Workshop - Wikipedia.”

“Wikipedia:Ignore All Rules.” In Wikipedia, March 14, 2021.

“Wikipedia:List of Policies.” In Wikipedia, December 26, 2020.

“Wikipedia:List of Policies - Wikipedia.”

“Wikipedia:Meetup/ArtAndFeminism - Wikipedia.”

“Wikipedia:Meetup/ArtandFeminism/Safespacepolicy - Wikipedia.”

“Wikipedia:Notability.” In Wikipedia, March 18, 2021.

“Wikipedia:Ownership of Content.” In Wikipedia, March 24, 2021.

“Wikipedia:Paid-Contribution Disclosure - Wikipedia.”

“Wikipedia:Please Do Not Bite the Newcomers.” In Wikipedia, March 24, 2021.

“Wikipedia:WikiProject - Wikipedia.”

“Wikisource:WikiProject NLS - Wikisource, the Free Online Library.”

Wilkins, Brendon. “Designing a Collaborative Peer-to-Peer System for Archaeology: The DigVentures Platform.” Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology 3, no. 1 (March 23, 2020): 33–50.

Wilkins, Brendon, Chris Casswell, Maggie Eno, Jodie Harris, Maiya Pina-Dacier, Harriet Tatton, and Johanna Ungemach. “Social Impact Archaeology: Pontefract Castle and the Gatehouse Project.” Internet Archaeology, no. 57 (March 17, 2021).

Wilkinson, Mark D., Michel Dumontier, IJsbrand Jan Aalbersberg, Gabrielle Appleton, Myles Axton, Arie Baak, Niklas Blomberg, et al. “The FAIR Guiding Principles for Scientific Data Management and Stewardship.” Scientific Data 3, no. 1 (December 2016): 160018.

William L. Clements Library. “Rochester Ladies’ Anti-Slavery Society Papers Transcriptions.” UM Clements Library (blog), June 16, 2020.

Young, Kerri. “How-to’s: A New Way to Pin.” Historypin About, December 8, 2015.

———. “Launch: Historypin’s New Bulk Uploader.” Historypin About, September 7, 2017.

Google Docs. “Your First Crowdsourcing Project.”



Zooniverse. “Zooniverse Project Review: Best Practices & Flowchart,” October 19, 2020.

“Zooniverse - African American Civil War Soldiers.”

“Zooniverse - The American Soldier.”

Zooniverse, The. “Researchers Working to Improve Participant Learning through Zooniverse.” Zooniverse (blog), December 15, 2020.

Zooniverse/Data-Digging. Python. 2015. Reprint, Zooniverse, 2020.

No comments here
Why not start the discussion?